Horticulture – the domestication of certain plants – was another important source of food. The peoples of the West Coast and the nations of the Columbia Plateau (which covers much of the southern interior of British Columbia), like many eastern groups, used controlled burning to remove undergrowth and open the landscape to berry spots and meadows of Camas plants harvested for their potato-like roots. This required a little less work than farming (although harvesting root crops is never easy work), and it worked as part of a seasonal storage strategy. Communities moved from one food harvesting location to another to prepare and harvest later. Much of the land conquered by early European settlers in the Pacific Northwest included these bay fields and grasslands. These were attractive places because they had been cleared of huge trees and consisted of pastures mostly open and well drained. Europeans would see these spaces as pastoral, natural and available landscapes and not as anthropogenic (man-made) landscapes – the product of centuries of horticultural experiences. The practice of potlatch (a public festival organized to mark important community events, deaths, ascents, etc.) is another commonality. It was a question of giving goods and thus redistributing wealth in order to maintain, strengthen and even penetrate the complex hierarchical structure. Upon receiving ownership of a potlatch, a participant pledged to testify to the legitimacy of the event celebrated. The size of potlatching has varied radically and evolved along new lines in the post-contact period, but the contours and protocols of this cultural brand were well elaborated centuries before the time of contact. Potlatching was universal among coastal peoples and could also be found in upstream inland societies.

Our class conducted several rounds of survey tests with friends, family members, and strangers to get feedback on additions to last year`s survey tool. The most common fear among us twenty students who were about to graduate was “not really reaching our potential,” and we took this into account when assessing the current state of American anxiety. Mass media consumption has had a profound impact on fueling fear of terrorism in the United States, even though acts of terrorism are a rare phenomenon. [20] Since the 1960s, George Gerbner and his colleagues have accelerated the study of the link between media consumption and fear of crime. According to Gerbner, television and other forms of mass media create a worldview that reflects “recurring media messages” rather than a reality-based view. [21] Many Americans are exposed to some form of media on a daily basis, with television and social media platforms being the most commonly used methods of obtaining local and international news, and thus receive most of the news and details focused on violent crime and acts of terrorism. With the increasing use of smartphones and social media, people are bombarded with constant updates and can read stories related to terrorism, stories that come from all corners of the world. .